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Environmental Engineering Research 2003;8(2): 59-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2003.8.2.059
Daeik Kim, Shih Pin Tu, and Teh Fu Yen
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA
Corresponding Author: Teh Fu Yen ,Tel: +1-213-740-0586, Fax: +1-213-744-1426 , Email: tfyen@usc.edu
Received: November 20, 2002;  Accepted: January 20, 2003.
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Ultrasonication process with the help of chemical additives was evaluated as means of removing metal organic compounds in different operating conditions of power intensity, pulse cycle, surfactant, oxidant, solvent, temperature, pH value, and reaction time. This paper attempts to find an economical process by promoting the effect of ultrasound. Particularly, control of the energy output of ultrasound can be manipulated through the alteration of power intensity, pulse cycle, and many other parameters. It was found that an ultrasound with a higher intensity increased the sonochemical effects. The decomposition and demetallation efficiency of NiTPP (nickel tetraphenylporphyrin) and VOTPP (vanadyl tetraphenylporphyrin) increased linearly with an increase of power intensity. Higher pulse cycle mode generally showed a higher decomposition efficiency of NiTPP. 80% of pulse cycle was similar to 100% of pulse cycle, continuous operation with respect to the removal efficiency. During the sonication time, concentration of model compounds decreased gradually. Within the 60-min scale, 92.9% of NiTPP and 88.8% of VOTPP were removed. Also, chlorinated solvents increased the ultrasonic effects. Selecting the appropriate solvent, surfactant, oxidant, operation temperature, and reaction time will make a big difference in saving the cost of the system when ultrasonication process is feasibly implemented.
Keywords: decomposition | demetallation | metalloporphyrin | oxidant | power intensity | pulse cycle | solvent | surfactant | ultrasonication
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