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Environmental Engineering Research 2025;30(1): 240062 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2024.062
Zeolites and their composites as novel remediation agent for antibiotics: A review
Yaksha Verma1, Gaurav Sharma1  , Amit Kumar1, Tongtong Wang2  , Pooja Dhiman1, and Genene Tessema Mola3
1International Research Centre of Nanotechnology for Himalayan Sustainability (IRCNHS), Shoolini University, Solan, 173229, India
2Institute for Interdisciplinary and Innovate Research, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710055, PR China
3School of Chemistry & Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, Scottsville 3209, South Africa
Corresponding Author: Gaurav Sharma ,Tel: +86-13827484317, Email: gaurav8777@gmail.com
Tongtong Wang ,Tel: +86-18093831300, Email: tongtwang@163.com
Received: February 2, 2024;  Accepted: June 3, 2024.
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Antibiotic residues in aquatic environments pose significant challenges when exceeding permissible limits. Zeolites, particularly aluminosilicate zeolites, have emerged as effective adsorption materials and solid substrates for semiconductor photocatalysts, facilitating the removal of antibiotics from wastewater. This review highlights the versatility of zeolites and their composites in antibiotic remediation, showcasing recent advancements in adsorption and photocatalytic degradation. Noteworthy examples include Fe (III)-modified synthetic zeolite 13X, exhibiting a maximum tetracycline adsorption capacity of approximately 200 mg/g, and MoS2@Zeolite achieving a remarkable efficiency of 396.70 mg/g for tetracycline removal. Additionally, zeolite-based photocatalysts like Fe-TiO2/BEA zeolite and exceptional CdS/CaFe2O4-clinoptilolite demonstrate high removal percentages, reaching 100% for tetracycline and 86% for cefazolin, respectively. The discussion encompasses an introduction to zeolites, including synthetic and natural zeolites, as well as techniques for modifying natural zeolites. It further delves into the production of synthetic zeolites as well as the fabrication of zeolite-based composite materials. These findings underscore the potential of zeolites and their composites as novel remediation agents for tackling antibiotic contamination in aquatic ecosystems, paving the way for sustainable wastewater treatment strategies. It highlights key elements, distinct qualities, and areas needing further research, paving the way for future studies.
Keywords: Adsorption | Antibiotics | Photocatalysis | Water remediation | Zeolites
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