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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2024.023
LCA-based environmental benefit allocation between steel and cement industries in steel byproduct recycling
Kayoung Shin1,3, Junbeum Kim2, Yong Woo Hwang3, Byong Chul Kim4, and Doo Hwan Kim5
1Department of Transportation Environment Research, New Transportation Innovation Research Center, Korea Railroad Research Institute, South Korea
2CREIDD Research Centre on Environmental Studies & Sustainability, Interdisciplinary research unit on society-technology-environment interactions, University of Technology of Troyes, France
3Department of Environmental Engineering, Inha University, South Korea
4R&D Center, Hyundai Steel, South Korea
5Program in Circular Economy Environmental System, Inha University, South Korea
Corresponding Author: Junbeum Kim ,Tel: +33-03-25-71-80-06 (J.K.), +82-032-860-7501 (Y.W.H.), Email: junbeum.kim@utt.fr (J.K.), hwangyw@inha.ac.kr (Y.W.H.)
Yong Woo Hwang ,Tel: +33-03-25-71-80-06 (J.K.), +82-032-860-7501 (Y.W.H.), Email: junbeum.kim@utt.fr (J.K.), hwangyw@inha.ac.kr (Y.W.H.)
Received: January 15, 2024;  Accepted: May 14, 2024.
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ABSTRACT
Among the steel byproducts, more than 80% of blast furnace slag is recycled in the cement industry. However, the criteria for allocating environmental benefits between the steel and cement industries need to be more transparent. This study aims to allocate the environmental benefits between the steel and cement industries when granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is recycled to replace Portland cement in the production of slag cement (SC). Specifically, this research proposes how the recycling of GBFS, a byproduct of the steel production process, can quantify environmental burdens and benefits from both attributional life cycle assessment (ALCA) and consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) perspectives. It also suggests methods for allocating these environmental benefits between the steel and cement industries. Following the final agreement on the EU Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM), this study emphasizes the growing importance of interconnected allocation of environmental benefits through recycling. Various allocation methods using ALCA and CLCA approaches have been assessed, significantly impacting the analysis results. Furthermore, these findings of the study are expected to provide guidance for potential policy decisions and internal decision-making processes, highlighting the environmental benefits that GBFS recycling offers to both steel and cement industries.
Keywords: Attributional life cycle assessment (ALCA) | Carbon border adjustment echanism | Consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) | Recycling allocation | Slag cement | Steel byproduct
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LCA-based environmental benefit allocation between steel and cement industries in steel byproduct recycling  2025 February;30(1)
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