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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2022.403
Enhancing mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol/sodium alginate gel beads by graphene oxide for the aerobic sludge immobilization in wastewater treatment
Tuyen-Nguyen Van1, Trung-Do Quang2, Thuan-Tran Hung1, Quang-Chu Xuan1, Tuan-Hoang Van3, Hyungu Kim4, and Daehee Ahn4,5
1Center for Advanced Materials and Environmental Technology, National center for technological progress, Hanoi, Vietnam
2Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam
3Phenikaa University Nano Institute (PHENA), Phenikaa University, Hanoi 12116, Vietnam
4Bluebank Co., Ltd, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17058, Republic of Korea
5Department of Environmental Engineering and Energy, Myongji University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do, 17058, Republic of Korea
Corresponding Author: Daehee Ahn ,Tel: +82-31-321-5901, Email: dhahn@mju.ac.kr
Received: July 28, 2022;  Accepted: January 8, 2023.
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ABSTRACT
This study reinforced polyvinyl alcohol/sodium alginate (PVA/SA) gel beads immobilizing aerobic sludge with graphene oxide (GO) as a nanofiller. The different types of beads were made by various concentrations of GO (0.02, 0.2; 2; 20, and 200 mg/L). The effect of GO on beads structure was observed by comparing the mechanical properties of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4+-N removal efficiencies. The results showed that the PVA/SA/GO gel carriers have excellent reinforcement properties compared to non-GO gel carriers, while sphericity factor and methyl blue absorption are the same. The strongest carrier contains 200 mg/L GO, referred to as GO6. In addition, the highest COD and NH4+-N removal efficiencies of GO6 gel carriers were 97 and 96.67%, respectively, which is higher than a non-GO PVA/SA (GO1) gel carrier. The addition of GO (200 mg/L) was thus an effective way to improve the mechanical strength of PVA/SA gel beads due to the strong interaction between GO and the PVA/SA matrix. It can also promote COD and NH4+-N removal efficiency of immobilized bacteria inside the beads
Keywords: Activated sludge | Graphene oxide | Immobilization | Polyvinyl alcohol-sodium alginate | Wastewater treatment
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