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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2022.100
Activated Carbon: A Review of Residual Precursors, Synthesis Processes, Characterization Techniques, and Applications in the Improvement of Biogas
José Aurelio Sosa1, José Ramón Laines1, David Salvador García2, Rafael Hernández3, Mark Zappi3, and Alejandra E. Espinosa de los Monteros4
1Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. División Académica de Ciencias Biológicas. Carretera Villahermosa-Cárdenas km 0.5, 86039, Tabasco, México
2Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. División Académica Multidisciplinaria de Jalpa de Méndez. Carretera Estatal Libre Villahermosa-Comalcalco km 27, 86205, Tabasco, México
3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504, USA
4Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. División Académica de Ciencias Básicas. Carretera Cunduacán -Jalpa km1, 86690, Tabasco, México
Corresponding Author: José Ramón Laines ,Tel: +52 9931776463, Email: jose.laines@ujat.mx
Received: March 3, 2022;  Accepted: June 14, 2022.
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ABSTRACT
The energy growing demand and the international environmental policies contribute to the use of renewable energy sources. Among these sources, biogas has acquired great relevance due to its energetic similarity to fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas (NG). However, biogas needs to be upgraded by removing CO2 and trace gases to obtain biomethane (>85% CH4). This review identifies and classifies seven techniques used in biogas upgrading, reported in academic and scientific publications. A 13-year review period (2008-2021) was considered. Lineal regression was used to analyze the publications number per year. Membranes use represents the largest proportion of publications (33%), while activated carbon (AC) reaches only 22%. However, the use and application of AC obtained the best trend as a publication topic, with a maximum value of R2 = 0.7882. This review documents publish works on obtaining and applying AC in biogas enrichment processes. It includes a review of the characteristics and generation rates of various residual lignocellulosic materials used in the synthesis of AC, the synthesis processes, the characterization techniques, and the final adsorption capacities.
Keywords: Adsorption | Biogas enrichment | Carbon dioxide | Lignocellulosic material | Porous carbonaceous materials | Waste agro-industrial
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