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Environmental Engineering Research 2019;24(2): 331-338. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2018.226
Size distributions of atmospheric particulate matter and associated trace metals in the multi-industrial city of Ulsan, Korea
Hye-Ok Kwon1, Min-Kyu Park1, Seong-Joon Kim1, Jinsoo Choi2, Jun Oh2, Joon-Young Ahn2, and Sung-Deuk Choi1 
1School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea
2Climate and Air Quality Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 22689, Republic of Korea
Corresponding Author: Sung-Deuk Choi ,Tel: +82-52-217-2811 , Fax: +82-52-217-2859, Email: sdchoi@unist.ac.kr
Received: July 8, 2018;  Accepted: August 31, 2018.
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Particulate matter (PM) was collected using micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors from a residential (RES) site and an industrial (IND) site in Ulsan, South Korea, in September-October 2014. The PM samples were measured based on their size distributions (11 stages), ranging from 0.06 μm to over 18.0 μm. Nine trace metals (As, Se, Cr, V, Cd, Pb, Ba, Sb, and Zn) associated with PM were analyzed. The PM samples exhibited weak bimodal distributions irrespective of sampling sites and events, and the mean concentrations of total PM (TPM) measured at the IND site (56.7 μg/m3) was higher than that measured at the RES site (38.2 μg/m3). The IND site also showed higher levels of nine trace metals, reflecting the influence of industrial activities and traffic emissions. At both sites, four trace metals (Ba, Zn, V, and Cr) contributed to over 80% of the total concentrations in TPM. The modality of individual trace metals was not strong except for Zn; however, the nine trace metals in PM2.5 and PM10 accounted for approximately 50% and 90% of the total concentrations in TPM, respectively. This result indicates that the size distributions of PM and trace metals are important to understand how respirable PM affects public health.
Keywords: Metal | MOUDI | Particulate matter | Size distribution | Ulsan
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