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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2017.204
Exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using ethanol-in-palm oil/diesel microemulsion-based biofuels
Ampira Charoensaeng1, Sutha Khaodhiar2,3, David A. Sabatini4, and Noulkamol Arpornpong5
1The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2Department of Environmental Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3The Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
4School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, The University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma 73019, USA
5Faculty of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
Corresponding Author: Noulkamol Arpornpong ,Tel: +66-5596-2755 , Fax: +66-5596-2750, Email: noulkamola@nu.ac.th
Received: December 11, 2017;  Accepted: February 2, 2018.
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ABSTRACT
The use of palm oil and diesel blended with ethanol, known as a microemulsion biofuel, is gaining attention as an attractive renewable fuel for engines that may serve as a replacement for fossil-based fuels. The microemulsion biofuels can be formulated from the mixture of palm oil and diesel as the oil phase; ethanol as the polar phase; methyl oleate as the surfactant; alkanols as the cosurfactants. This study investigates the influence of the three cosurfactants on fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions in a direct-injection (DI) diesel engine. The microemulsion biofuels along with neat diesel fuel, palm oil-diesel blends, and biodiesel-diesel blends were tested in a DI diesel engine at two engine loads without engine modification. The formulated microemulsion biofuels increased fuel consumption and gradually reduced the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions and exhaust gas temperature; however, there was no significant difference in their carbon monoxide (CO) emissions when compared to those of diesel. Varying the carbon chain length of the cosurfactant demonstrated that the octanol-microemulsion fuel emitted lower CO and NOx emissions than the butanol- and decanol-microemulsion fuels. Thus, the microemulsion biofuels demonstrated competitive advantages as potential fuels for diesel engines because they reduced exhaust emissions.
Keywords: Cosurfactant | Engine test | Exhaust emissions | Microemulsion biofuel | Palm oil
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