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Environmental Engineering Research 2012;17(S1): S21-S26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2012.17.S1.S21
Diversity Analysis and Molecular Typing of Cyanobacteria Isolated from Various Ecological Niches in the State of Meghalaya, North-East India
B. Bashisha Nongbri , and Mayashree B. Syiem
Department of Biochemistry, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya, India
Corresponding Author: Mayashree B. Syiem  ,Tel: +91-9863063294, Fax: +91-3642550108, Email: mayashreesyiem@yahoo.co.in
Received: September 7, 2012;  Accepted: September 30, 2012.
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ABSTRACT
The recent realization of immense biotechnological potential has made cyanobacteria the organisms of choice for research and development in the fields of biofertilizers, food and feed, energy production, fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals and bioremediation etc. This necessitates a study of cyanobacterial diversity for finding strains with different potentials and characteristics to suit their varied applications. Cyanobacterial population in 13 different sites within the state of Meghalaya was studied as a preliminary investigation of diversity in the state. Ninety seven samples were collected from different ecological niches which yielded 147 isolates out of which a total of 93 strains belonging to 11 genera were documented. These are Nostoc, Anabaena, Fischerella, Calothrix, Cylindrospermum, Gloeocapsa, Plectonema, Scytonema, Tolypothrix, Stigonema, and Westiellopsis. Nostoc was most abundant. The isolates were characterized at the morphological, biochemical as well as at the molecular level. Statistical analyses indicated maximum Shannon’s and Simpson’s diversity indices in Sung Valley and minimum in Mairang. Richness was highest in Sung Valley and Syntuksiar and lowest in Rangshken. Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular fingerprinting study proved to be highly efficient in distinguishing closely related strains revealing greater cyanobacterial diversity in all locations than initially appeared under morphological investigations.
Keywords: Cyanobacterial diversity | Diversity indices | Molecular fingerprints | Northeast India
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