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Environmental Engineering Research 2007;12(2): 72-80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2007.12.2.072
ULTRA-FINE PARTICLES AND GASEOUS VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EXPOSURES FROM THE REACTION OF OZONE AND CAR-AIR FRESHENER DURING METROPOLIS TRAVEL
Rheo B. Lamorena1, Su-Mi Park2, Gwi-Nam Bae2, and Woojin Lee1
1Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Daejon, Korea
2Environment and Process Technology, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 130-650 Seoul, Korea
Corresponding Author: Woojin Lee ,Tel: +82-42-869-3624, Fax: +82-42-869-3610, Email: woojin_lee@kaist.ac.kr
Received: June 6, 2006;  Accepted: May 7, 2007.
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ABSTRACT
Experiments were conducted to identify the emissions from the car air freshener and to identify the formation of ultra-fine particles and secondary gaseous compounds during the ozone-initiated oxidations with emitted VOCs. The identified primary constituents emitted from the car air freshener in this study were -pinene,  -pinene,  -cymene and limonene. Formation of ultra-fine particles (4.4 - 160 nm) was observed when ozone was injected into the chamber containing emitted monoterpenes from the air freshener. Particle number concentrations, particle mass concentrations, and surface concentrations were measured in time dependent experiments to describe the particle formation and growth within the chamber. The irritating secondary gaseous products formed during the ozone-initiated reactions include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, and propionaldehyde. Ozone concentration (50 and 100 ppb) and temperature (30 and 40 °C) significantly affect the formation of particles and gaseous products during the ozone-initiated reactions. The results obtained in this study provided an insight on the potential exposure of particles and irritating secondary products formed during the ozone-initiated reaction to passengers in confined spaces.
Keywords: Ozone | Volatile organic compounds | Monoterpenes | Particles | Air freshener
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