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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2019.076
Characteristics of direct transesterification using ultrasound on oil extracted from spent coffee grounds
Yeong Su Kim1, Duk Gam Woo2, and Tae Han Kim1
1Department of Bio-industrial Machinery Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
2Research faculty of agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 41566, Japan
Corresponding Author: Duk Gam Woo ,Tel: +81-11-706-2539 (D. Woo), +82-539-505-793(T. KIM), Fax: +81 117064147, Email: dgwoo@bpe.agr.hokudai.ac.jp (D.Woo), thakim@knu.ac.kr (T.Kim)
Tae Han Kim ,Tel: +81-11-706-2539 (D. Woo), +82-539-505-793(T. KIM), Fax: +81 117064147, Email: dgwoo@bpe.agr.hokudai.ac.jp (D.Woo), thakim@knu.ac.kr (T.Kim)
Received: February 27, 2019;  Accepted: July 1, 2019.
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Spent coffee grounds, the residue after brewing coffee beverage, is a promising biodiesel feedstock due to its high oil contents (15-20%). However, spent coffee grounds should be pretreated to reduce the high free fatty acid content, which hampers transesterification reaction. To overcome this, we explored a direct transesterification reaction of spent coffee grounds using ultrasound irradiation and identified the optimal sonication parameters. A high fatty acid methyl ester content, up to 97.2%, could be achieved with ultrasound amplitude of 99.2 μm, irradiation time of 10 min, and methanol to oil ratio of 7:1 in the presence of potassium hydroxide concentration of 1.25 wt.%. In addition, we demonstrated that ultrasound irradiation is an efficient method to produce biodiesel from untreated spent coffee grounds (SCG) in a short time with less energy than the conventional mechanical stirring method. The physical and chemical properties of the SCG biodiesel met the requirements for an alternative fuel to the current commercial biodiesel.
Keywords: Biodiesel | Energy consumption | Pretreatment | Spent coffee grounds | Transesterification | Ultrasound
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